Black Dolphin - Cephalorhynchus eutropia

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Scientific Name Cephalorhynchus eutropia
Author (Gray, 1846)
Taxonomic Rank Species
Taxonomic # 180450
Common Names English: Black Dolphin
English: Chilean Dolphin
Current Standing valid
Taxonomic Parents Kingdom: Animalia
  Phylum: Chordata
    Subphylum: Vertebrata
      Class: Mammalia
        Subclass: Theria
          Infraclass: Eutheria
            Order: Cetacea
              Suborder: Odontoceti
                Family: Delphinidae
                  Genus: Cephalorhynchus
Taxonomic Children
Synonyms (since 1950)
Taxonomic data is courtesy of the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
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Physical Description / Field Identification

This little-known dolphin is robust, with a short, poorly-defined beak. The dorsal fin is moderately low and rounded, and the flippers have rounded tips, much like those of other members of the genus.

The body is mostly gray, with a darker gray band extending from the blowhole to above the eye. There is often darker gray on the sides of the face, and in a wide band from around the eye to the flipper. On the belly are large white patches from behind the flippers to the urogenital area, and from ahead of the flippers to the snout tip. These patches are separated by a dark gray band between the flippers. There are also small white patches in the axillae, and thin gray patches around the urogenital area (the latter are sexually and individually variable).

Chilean dolphins have 29-34 small pointed teeth in each row.

Adults of this species reach at least 1.7 m (size at sexual maturity has not been sufficiently documented). Length at birth is unknown, but is probably somewhat less than 1 m. Chilean dolphins reach weights of up to 63 kg.

Can be Confused With

Chilean dolphins can be confused with Commerson’s dolphins around the southern tip of South America. The large white areas on Commerson’s dolphins will the best clue. Burmeister’s porpoises may also be confused with this species. Here, dorsal fin shape will be the best character to distinguish them.

Distribution

This dolphin is found only along the Chilean coast, from 30°S to the tip of South America. As is true of other members of the genus, it is found in shallow coastal waters, and enters estuaries and rivers.

Ecology and Behavior

Until recently, there have been very few sightings of these animals by researchers, and this is the least-known member of the genus. Groups tend to be small, between 2 and 15 members, but much larger aggregations have been recorded. Although active, they tend to be shy and difficult to approach, but may occasionally ride bow waves.

Most sightings of young Chilean dolphins have been from October to April. Little else is known of their reproductive biology.

Feeding and Prey

Chilean dolphins feed on fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans.

Threats and Status

Chilean dolphins have been hunted for many years for food and crab bait. Up to 1,300-1,500 per year were harpooned in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Such activities are now illegal, but enforcement is difficult. Gillnet catches also affect the species, which is thought to number in the hundreds or low thousands. It is almost certainly threatened, but is currently “Not Listed” (IUCN) and “Not Listed” (ESA).

Links

References

Dawson, S.M. 2002. Cephalorhynchus dolphins: Cephalorhynchus heavisidii, C. eutropia, C. hectori and C. commersonii. pp. 200-203 in W.F. Perrin, B. Würsig and J.G.M. Thewissen, eds. Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Academic Press.

Crovetto, A. and G. Medina. 1991. Comportment du dauphin chilien (Cephalorhynchus eutropia Gray, 1846) dans les eaux du sud du Chili. Mammalia 55(3):329-338.

Goodall, R.N.P. 1994. Chilean dolphin Cephalorhynchus eutropia (Gray, 1846). pp. 269-287 in S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison, eds. Handbook of marine mammals, Volume 5: The first book of dolphins. Academic Press.

ITIS TSN180450
Status - ESA, U.S. FWS -
    -
Status - Red List, IUCN -
    NT (Global or one of the sub regions)
#records (spatial)1
#records (non-spatial)0
#datasets1
Year2019
Latitude-42.89 - -42.89
Longitude-73.51 - -73.51
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